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3D printing guides: Calibration and why you might be doing it wrong


Things you should and shouldn’t calibrate! The Prusa calculator http://prusaprinters.org/calculator/ Youmagine files and instructions https://www.youmagine.com/designs/calibration-sticks…

How To Calibrate Your Monitor


Many monitors don’t have accurate colors out of the box. Fortunately, you can often correct this by calibrating your display. How do you do this, and do you necessarily need expensive hardware?…

I Want To Calibrate You – ASMR


Sit down, relax and enjoy your calibration… your language decoder module is not working properly so Prof. Tinglebottom will fix it for you.. enjoy **T-Shirts are still available -2 Choices**…

Calibration Of a Thermometer


Check us out at http://physics.tutorvista.com How to Calibrate a Thermometer Thermometers can be calibrated either by comparing them with other certified thermometers or by checking them…

What is Calibration?


What is calibration? Randy from Tektronix talks about the fundamentals of calibration, and helps to answer some frequently asked questions, including: – What is calibration? – Why is calibration…

Calibration instruments


What is conductivity and techniques used for measuring


Do you know What is Conductivity?
Conductivity is the ability of Solution to conduct electrical current.Ions in solution (e.g., dissolved salts or acids) carry electrical current.Ions that have lost electrons are charged positive, and ions that have gained electrons are negative. The more ions in a solution, and the more electrons being transferred, the more conductive a solution is . Conductivity is used to measure the volume of dissolved solids in a solution.

Now we will discuss different Measurement Techniques for conductivity,

First one is Electrode Conductivity.

Second is Inductive Conductivity.

In electrode conductivity we have two types,

Conductivity measurement with conductive 2 electrode sensors
Conductive probes feature two electrodes that are positioned opposite from each other. An alternating voltage is applied to the electrodes which generates a current in the medium. The intensity of the current depends on the number of the medium’s free anions and cations that move between the two electrodes. The more free anions and cations the liquid contains, the higher the electrical conductivity and the current flow. The conductivity unit is “Siemens per meter”.

Conductivity measurement with conductive 4-electrode sensors
A high ion concentration in the medium leads to a mutual repulsion of the ions and thus a reduction of the current – the so called polarization effect. This can influence the measuring accuracy of conductive probes. 4-electrode sensors have two electrodes that are currentless and therefore not affected by the polarization effect. They measure the potential difference in the medium. A connected transmitter uses the measured potential difference and current to calculate the conductivity value.

Now we will discuss
Conductivity measurement with inductive sensors
Electrodeless conductivity sensors use inductive coils. The inductive conductivity sensor consists of two coils which are incorporated next to one another in a polymer or ceramic body. These coils form current transformers. The sensor is designed so part of the liquid media forms a closed conductive current path passing through the coils. An oscillator generates an alternating magnetic field in the transmission coil, which induces a voltage in the medium. In liquids which conduct electricity, causes a current flow captured by the second coil (receiving coil), which is proportional to the conductivity of the sample solution.

In my next video I will discuss about how to calibrate conductivity transmitter using HART Communicator.

Industrial Automation Communication Protocols



Automation Protocol KindCommunication strategiesCommunity VelocityInformation Switch MeasurementArbitration TechniqueError CheckingDiagnosticsARCNETPeer to Peer31.25kbps to 10 Mbps508 bytesToken16 bit CRCBuilt inAS-IMaster/slave with cyclic polling167 kbps31 slaves with four in and four outMaster/slave with cyclic pollingManchester code hamming-2 partlyslave fault gadget faultCAN openMaster/slave1Mbps,    500 kbps, 250 kbps, 125kbps8 – bytes variable messageCarrier-sonac a number of accessCRC checkBus monitorCONTROL NETMaster/slave, multi-master, peer to peer5 Mbps510 bytesTime -slice a number of entry (CTDMA)CCITT with 16 bit polynomialDevice slave faultsDEVICE NETMaster/slave, multi-master, others500 kbps, 250 kbps, 125 kbps8-bytes variable messageCarrier-sonac a number of accessCRC checkBus monitoringFOUNDATION FIELD BUSClient/server writer/subscriber, Occasion notification31.25 kbps 1 Mbps    2.5 Mbps16.6 M objects / deviceDeterministic centralised scheduler, a number of backup16 bit CRCRemote diagnostics community displays, parameter statusINDUSTRIUAL ETHERNETCSMA/CD10 Mbps 100 Mbps1500 bytes dataCollision detection32 bit CRCCD, community managementINTERBUS-SMaster/slave with whole body switch500 kbps, full duplex512 bytes h,s., limitless blocksNone16 bit CRCSegment location of CRC error and cable breakLON WorksMaster/slave Peer tp peer1.25 Mbs full duplex228 bytesCarrier sense a number of entry16 bit CRCDatabase of CRC error and machine errorMODBUS PLUSToken passing1 Mbps256 bytes information + headerPeer to see Token passing16 bit CRCLocal chip and softwarePROFIBUS DP/PAMaster/slave Peer to peerDP upto 12 Mbps Pa 31.25 kbps244 bytesToken passingHD4 CRCStation,module & channel diagnosticsSDSMaster/slave, peer to look, multicase, multi-master1 Mbps,   500 kbps, 250 kbps, 125 kbps8 – bytes variable messageCarrier-sonac a number of accessCRC checkBus monitoring diagnostic slaveSERIPLEXMaster/ slave Peer to look200 Mbps7680 / transferSonal multiplexingEnd of frameCabling issues & echo checkWORLD FIPPeer to see31.25 kbps, 1&2.5mbps, 6Mbps fiberNo restrict, variables 128 bytesCentral arbitration16 bit CRC knowledge “freshness” indicatorDevice message time-out, redundant cabling

What is CALIBRATION? What does CALIBRATION mean? CALIBRATION meaning, definition & explanation


What is CALIBRATION? What does CALIBRATION mean? CALIBRATION meaning – CALIBRATION definition – CALIBRATION explanation – How to pronounce CALIBRATION? Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted…

What is Calibration of instruments in Hindi


In this video we will discuss about the measuring instrument types and requirements for the calibration of these instruments This you tube channel is the place where we can trying to understand…